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A PLEA FOR EMIGRATION; 



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NOTES OF CANADA WEST, 






IN ITS 



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MORAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL ASPECT : 









WITH 



SUGOESTIONS RESPECTING MEXICO, WEST INDIES; 



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M,: AND VANCOUVER'S ISLAND, 



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FOB THE 



INFORMATION DF COLORED EMIGRANTS. 



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* 

BY MARY A. SHAD^I^. 






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DETROIT: 
IPRINT^D BY GEORGE W. PATtlSON. 

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INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



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The increasing desire on the part of the colored people, to become 
thoroughly informed respecting the Canadas, and particularly that 
part of the province called Canada West — to learn of the climate, 
soil and productions, and of the inducements offered generally to 
•emigrants, and to them particularly, since that the passage of the 
odious Fugitive Slave Law has made a residf nee in the United States 
to many of th«m dangerous in the extreme, — ^this consideration, and 
the absence of condensed information accessible to all, is my excuse 
for offering this tract to the notice of the public. The people are in a 
strait, — on the one hand, a pro-slavery administration, with its entire 
controllable force, is bearing upon the^l with fatal effect : on the 
otlier, the Colonization Society, in the garb of ChrktianUy alld 
Philanthropy y is seconding the efforts of the first named power, by 
bringing into the lists a vast social and immoral influence, thus mak- 
ing more effective the agencies employed. Information is needed.';— 
Tropical Africa, the land of promise of the colonizationists, teemifl]^ 
«|f as she is with the breath of pestilence, a burning sun and fearful mal- 
adies, bids them welcome ; — she feelingly invites to moral and phys- 
ical death, under a voluntimy escort of their most bitter enemies at 
home. Ag»in, many look with dreadful forebodings to the probabil- 
^i.%||^^lty of worse than inquisitorial inhumanity in the Southern States,. 



4 



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I 



IV 



PREFATOUV UKMAUKS. 



from the operation of the Fiifijitivo Law. Certain tliat neitlier a home 
in Africa, nor in tlic Soutliern States, is desirable under present dte* 
cumstances, inquiry is made respectinff Canada. I liave endeavored 
to furnish information to a certain extent, to that end, and believinii- 
thai more reliance would be placed upon a statement of facts obtained 
in the country, from reliable sources and from observation, than upon 
a repetition of current statements made elsewhere, however honestly 
made, I determined to visit Canada, and to there collect such infor- 
mation as most persons desire. These pages contain the result of 
much inquiry — matter obtained both from individuals and from doc- 
uments and papers of unquestionable character in the Province. 

, , M. A. S. 



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A PLEA FOR EMIGRATION, aC^'^'^ 



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riii tJ/;iu BRITISH AMERICA. ..-^mM me mi Ji9^ 

British America, it is well known, is a country equal in extent, 
at least, to the United States, extending on the north to the Arctic 
Ocean, from the Atlantic on the cast, to the Pacific on the west, and 
the southern boundary of which is subject to the inequalities in lati- 
tude of the several Northern States and Territories belonging to the 
United States govemment. This vast country includes within its 
limits, some of the most beautiful lakes and rivers on the Western 
Continent. The climate, in the higher latitudes, is extremely severe, 
but for a considerable distance north of the settled districts, particular- 
ly in the western part, the climate is healthy aftd temperate : epidem- 
ics are not of such frequency as in the United States, owing to a moi'fe 
equable temperature, and local diseases are unknown. The province 
claiming especial attention, as presenting features most desirable in a 
residence, is Canada, divided into East and West ; and of these Can- 



ada West is to be preferred. 



THE CANADAS— CLIMATE, ETC. 



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Canada East, from geographical position and natural charaeterie^ 
tics, is not so well suited to a variety of pursuits, as the more western, 
part of the province. The surface is generally uneven, and in many- 
parts mountainous; its more northern location subjects the mhabitantfti 
to extremely cold, cheerless winters, and short but warm summers^ 
The land is of good quality, $kd vegetation is of rapid growth, but 
the general healthiness of the country is inferior to. some of the other 
^islricts. Th%; State of Maine presents a fair sample qC Lowjec Canr 



* * 



6 



NOTIH OF CANADA WK8T. 



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«da in the general. Population (which is principally French) is 
confined chiefly to the valley of the St. Lawrence, and the conlitfy 
contiguous. In Canada West, the variation from a salubrious and 
eminently healthy climate, is nowhere suflicient to cause the huist 
solicitude ; on the contrary, exempt from the steady and enfeeblin/^* 
warmth of southern latitudes, and tlie equally injurious characteristics 
of polar countries, it is highly conducive to mental and pliysical en- 
ergy. Persons living in the vicinity of the Great Lakes, and the 
neighboring districts, say that their winters are much less severe than 
when, in past years, vast forests covered that region — that very deep 
enows are less frequent than they were, and that owing to the great 
body of ice that accumulates in the Lakes, the people living in the 
States bordering, suffer more severely from the cold than Canadians, 
— the ice making more intense the north winds sweeping over it. If 
these statements admit of a iloubt, we well know that many flourish- 
ing towns in Canada are farther south than a large portion of Maine, 
New Hampshire, Vermont, New York, Michigan and Oregon, and 
should, m considering this fact, have the full benefit of geographical 
position, I have thought proper to allude to the cold, at first, for the 
reason that it is the feature in the climate most dwelt upon — the so- 
licitude of friends, ignorant on this point, and of persons less disinter- 
ested, often appealing to fears having no foundation whatever, when 
the facte are fairly set forth. ,^^^,, «Hiiv,r,.u 

7,he products of a country make an important item, in all cases in whicli 
this question is being considered; so in the present instance. In Cana- 
da we find the vegetation of as rank growth as in the middle and north- 
, lem United States. In order to promote a luxuriance in the products 
.i.|j of » country equally with another, the conditions necessary to that 
* •eml^ttst be equal, — if by reference to facts, an approach to similar- 
-. itTjr ean be made, that part of the subject will be settled for the present. 
Ji^early as March there are indications of permanent Spring weather, 
,.asid in June and July, the summer will compare with the same sea- 
SOD m»ik of the line. In January ^d February there are always 
<cold spdiisiaid warm alternating, as is our experience ; but when the 
waiNp |ii|pii<^gnmenccs, the heat is intense, and the fflpwth of ve^^- 



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NOTKB UK CANADA WK8T. 



reiich) ig 

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tatioa U rapid, m that whatever deficiency may be atiributeU to ilr 
britf firiod. may be fully compensated for in tfte steady and equal 
tetnpcrature auer the warm season has fairly set in; though it ii late 
beginning, it is prolonged into what is the autumn with us, and far- 
mers harvest their crops of wheat, hay, &c., at a later perioil thaa 
in the Middle Stntes, generally, — August and September being the 
months in which hay, wheat, and some other crops are gathered in. 
Taking this circumstance in connection with the regularity of the 
seasons, and uniform heat or cold when they have such weather, the 
superiority of many products, as wheat, fruit, &o., may be aooountod 
for. I say superiority, because, in its place, I hope to give such evir 
dence as will substantiate the assertion. Annexed is a table setting 
forth the greatest degree of cold and heat, — in the years mentioned, 
as indicated by Fahrenheit's Thermometer, together With tbe higheet 
and lowest range indicated in the months of September ami Deceia- 
ber of 1861, which last has been said to be unusual, (the lowest ka 
twenty years) by the "oldest inhabitant." 









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GREATEST 


DBO. 


OV 


HEAT. 


1840. 


. 






82 « 4' 


1841. 


• 






93 ®r 


1842. 


. 






91° 


1843. 


- 






89° 


1844. 


• 




V 


86® 8' 


1845. 


- 






96® 


1846. 


- 






94® 6' 


1847. 


- 






87® 



LOWEST DBO. 



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OF COLD. 
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' jf Catechism of Information for Intended Emnmnis of all Ci 

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* 'These are the extreme ranges of cold and heai indicated at the 
Observatory, an one day during the seasons, but wliichi do pot la9^ 
beyond a few hours ; the mean temperature of the four months of 
summer and four of winter for the last eight years have beea TespwH' 
tively : Summer 76 ® 6' < Wmter 26 ® T, Fahrenheit."* Jjk a^- 
tion to the usual state of the weather of the last year, as contiraete4 
with former periods, the last summer and first autumn months wef? 
very warm, and in the month of September indicated 96 ® Fahren- 
heit, in the shade, without eliciting remarks other than a si^ajUi^ state 



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8 



NOTES OF CANADA WEST. 



of weathef, at that seftsbn, would have in the United States. In 
short, from much corfrersation with persons of many years re^<i|iilil!e, 
I believe that climate opposes no obstacle to emigration, but thattt is 
the most desirable known in so high a latitude, for emigrants general- 
ly, andl colored people particularly. In other parts of British Ameri- 
ca, as, for inistance. Lower Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Britain, 
thd cold' is more intense, but when we think of *' . extent of Upper 
Canada, there would be no more reason for ascribing severe cold to 
the! whole, than there would be to class the climate of the United 
States with that of the torrid zone, because of the great heat in the 
lower latitude. In this province the regularity of the seasons pro- 
mote health in a greater degree than in those countries subject to 
frequent changes, as in many of the United States, where cold and 
warm weather alternate in quick succession ; and in the upper pro- 
vince especially, universal testimony to the healthiness of the chmate 
«btaina.^)"»* '»^i'5|,'«">»i?'ttf ^t^'iiil }>ij;yvti:>'^lVH(} J^JiJit.firndvy^id^t %i^'»<i 

SOIL,— TIMBER,— CLE AllING LANDS. 



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The quality and different kinds of soil must form the second sub- 
ject for consideration, because, in connection with climate, it enters 
largely into all our ideas of comfort and pecuniary independence ; 
again, because so far as colored people are interested in the subject of 
emigration to any country, their welfare, in a pecuniary view, is pro- 
moted by attention to the quality of the soil. Lands out of the Uni- 
^ jd States, on this continent, should have no local value, if the ques- 
tiohs of personal freedom and political rights were left out of the 
subject, but as they are paramount, too much may not be said on this 
point. I mean to be understood, that a description of lands in Mexi- 
vC0%ould prot)a'bly be as desirable as lands in Canada, if the idea 
weH iiimply to get lands and settle thereorf ; but it is important to 
iiiow if by this investigation we only agitate, and leave the public 
,miiid m ah uh'settled state, or if a permanent nationality is included 
in the prospect of l)ecominff purchasers and settlers. 

[The question, does the soil of Canada offer inducemeiits sufficient 
^pdeterini^ejirotsp^ive emigrants in its favor ? may be (uiswered bjr 



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NOTBS OF CANADA WEST. 



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States. In 

It that it tS 
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one for himself, after having properly weighed the following 
Persons who have been engaged in agriculture the greater 
pasri of their lives,-^practical and competent farmers, and judges of 
the capacity- of different sftils, — say, that the soil is unsurpassed by 
that of Kentucky and States farther south, and naturally superior to 
the adjoining northern States. It is not only indicated by the rich, 
dark and heavy appearance, and the depth of the soil, which is seldom 
reached by plows of the greatest capacity, but by the character of 
the products, and the urecualled growth and size of timber on un^ 
cleared lands. Wheat, the staple product of the country, averages 
sixty pounds to the bus|;^el— often actually exceeding that ; fifty-six 
is the standard weight in the United States ; and leaving out Dela- 
ware, that is seldom reached. The forest consists of walnut, hidcory, 
white and burr oak, basswood, ash, pine, poplar — all of the largest 
size, and other inferior kinds of wood with which we are not familiar 
in our northern woods. There is a greater variety in them, and lar*< 
ger size, and knowing thai the size of vegetables depends mainly 
upon the quantity of nutriment afforded by the soil, we are led in this 
instance to infer its superiority. Besides the well known wheat, oats, 
buckwheat, Indian com, and other grains, are raised oi good quali- 
ty, and with profit, and more to the acre than is usually obtt^ned in 
the States, except on the application of fertilizing materials — a mode 
not much practised in Canada hitherto^ the land not having been ex- 
hausted suflEiciently to require such appliances to further its productive- 
ness. The varieties of soil, are a black loam, sandy loam> clay^ and 
sand, but a blacl^loam is the predominating kind. I speak now of 
the cultivated districts, and those in process of clesuing, as far north 
«s Lord Selkirk's settlement, for the country beyond the present 
limits of civilization, I do not feel warranted in speaking, nor to 
give in other than general terms, the testimony of those acquaiiited 
with that region. It is said to be equally fertile, but the products 
not so varied, because of its more northern situation. Tbe^ general 
appearance of the province is undulating, though there is much level 
country. Numerous and beautiful rivers, and smaller streams, run 
through the country, in all directions, so that there is no lack of wa- 
2 . ' 



10 



HOTSS OF CANADA WBST. 



i? 



ter power. " The plains," a term applied to level oountry, **a|0 
generally sandy, and yield regular average and certain crop8,^iip- 
out reference to the seasons."* Tbey are similar to the westcnrn 
pt^ries, but more capital is necessary to cultivate them than for tim- 
ber lands. The advantage of timbered land, to purchasers of small 
capital, over plains, is considerable. On cultivated, or plain lands, 
on which timber is thinly scattered, the earliest return for labor spent 
is deferred to the growth of a crop ; besides the mode of tillage is 
different. Not so on ihe timbered lands ; wood ever meets a ready 
and cash sale, and more may be realized from firewood than to three 
times pay the cost of a farm. Wood land will average seventy cords 
to th0 acre, eveYy cord of which can be readily disposed of at two 
and two and a half dollars, cash, in the towns. The regularity of 
the seasons tends, ailso, to increase the farmer's security, so that of all 
other men, be is least apprehensive of want. ''If the fall wheat 
fails," says the little book referred to, "he replaces it with spring 
wheat ; and our seasons are so peculiar that some crops are always 
certain to be productive." * * * Those whose capital invested 
in it is their own, are sure to increase their means and wealth. * * ^ 
* • If a farmer determines to keep out of debt, and be satisfied 
with what/his farm yields, independence in a few years will be the 
result." The above extracts are intended for the benefit of the emi- 
graQts in general, — ^men of small means, or with no capital, — and 
fihow what maybe expected by generally the least wealthy who set- 
tie in a new country. From the many instances of success under 
my observation, (particularly of formerly totally destitute colored 
persons,) I &rm\y believe that with an axe and a little energy, an 
independent position would result in a short period. The cost of 
oler*mg wild lands, is also an important item ; by that is meant put^ 
ting 3aad in a state to receive a crop, — it includes clearing of trees, 
fencing>, ^Icc. This can be done at less cost near the settled districts. 
<*In moderately timbered" lands, ten dollars the acre is the least for 
which it can be done, — ^more remote, the price varies from that to 



ih.%\ 



Catechism. 



mtiy, 
rops,' 
he western 
an for tim- 
rs of small 
lain lands, 
abor spent 
f tillage is 
its a ready 
in to three 
enty cords 
of at two 
afularity of 
that of all 
kll wheat 
ith spring 
re always 
i\ invested 
1th. <»^" 

e satisfied 
ill be the 
■ the emi- 
tal, — and 

whoset- 
sss under 
3 colored 
lergy, an 
le cost of 
3ant put^ 
of trees, 
districts, 
least for 

that to 



NOTBS Oil' CANADA WEST. 



u 



^Muty dollars. Though tlie prevalent opinion in the province, is, that 
th%soilis second to none for agricultural, purposes, yet it i» hardly 
possible to state the actual productiveness of the soil, as the attention 
has not been given to* farming that the land admits. There are, 
and must be for a time, few experimental and scientific faimers^ as it 
IS more as a means of present subsistence, than to* test the ci^paciiy 
of different soils, that the farmer labors te procure a crop ; though 
the conviction is irresistible that mdigence and moderate*competenoe 
must at no distant day, g;ve pkce to wealth, intelligence, and their 
conco«aitants. nS^^t.^'-^- *^'"''-■'■■"*''•v^ , 






.K 



GRilNS, POTATaES, TURNIPS, &C. 



fi^'W^.' 



..A ...^.,'i ... 



..r ^.„ 



>V .T/ 




4-4- Ikv^.f ■ I ^(^ ^ 



Hie accompanying tat)!e ezliibilis t^e average yield' to the aere', 61 
the several grains mentioned, in fallow land : 

\ 



¥ 



■:ril; ■'/.. 



^^5, "I'Tp' 



ARTIOLES. 

Wheat, - - , - - 
Buckwheat, i^ l^" * 
Rye, 



• mtiki..i:-i^ 



VO. BWSH. 

15 
31^ 



ABTIOLESw 

Oats, - - 
Bariey, -' ^^ 
Indian Com, 



KG. BUSH. 
- - - 70 



Other products yielding a profitable return, and that fontt a part 
of the crop in well cultivated farms generally, in the United States, 
are potatoes — white or Irish and sweet, — carrots, turnips, {pumpkins, 
(several kinds, and the best I ever saw,) squashes and tobacco. 
These vegetables grow very large, and are not included in what we 
term garden plants. I have never seen in the lajrge markets of our 
northern cities, vegetables of the class here mentioned, to equal them 
in the general, except the sweet potato. The Irish potato grows much 
larger, and is in every respect superior j so of the others. Tobaeeo 
grows finely, and meets with ready sale at what would be called a 
high price with us. These articles, I repeat, areol the finest des- 
cription, and have not, of oourse, the pithy and stringy charaoteris- 
tics so general in the same kind with us. It is dii&3ult to get «t the 
average yield of such things, except potatoes^ and ti^niips, but a 6itt 
c^op will convey the MjUik. 



12i 



NOTES OF CANADA WEST. 



iitf^J ..; >,*,.=^-r«'^ GARDEN VEGETABLES, fee. -;,r>ffT • . i| 

yThe most abundant are tomatoes, cucumbers, onions, be^ts, cm- 
bage and cauliflower, egg-plants, beans, peas, leeks, celery, lettuce, 
asparagus, melons, (water-melons and musk-melons,) cantelopes and 
spiinage. There are other vegetables, but they have been mentioned 
elsewhere. These articles, excepting- water-melons and cantelopes, 
are cultivated with as great success, at least, as in the United States, 
and the specimens ^nerally seen in the gardens and market-places 
are decidedly superior. ■ '^'*^ **^ '^^'^ ^^^ ,^^h'immh Oif ^iMm 

FRUITS— VINES— BERRIES. 

Canada is empbatically a fruit country. The fruits of New York, 
Michigan and New Jersey, have long been famous: but if comparison 
is fairly instituted, pre-eminence will be the award to the Province.^ 
Apples grow in abundance, wild and cultivated, from the diminutive 
crab to the highly flavored bell-flower and pippin ; and pears, plums 
and clierries, in many varieties. The extent to which fruit is culti- 
vated> and the yield, are incredible. Egg and blue plums are raised 
with ease, and strawberries, raspberries, grapes, whortleberries, and 
in fact all of the fruits seen in our markets, are plentiful. Other ideas 
thai! those of a barren soil, and scarcity of products, are induced when 
visiting the market-places of Toronto, Hamilton and other large towns. 
At Toronto> may be seen one of the best markets in America in 
every way — the supplies furnished by the farmers of their own agri- 
cultural districts. At the State Fair, held in Detroit, Michigan, 1851, 
the first prizes, for fruits, fowls, and cattle, were awarded to Canada 
farmers ; so of the Fair held in Western New York during the sam^ 



ki **■*! 



^ IK)MESTIC ANIMALS— FOWLS— GAME. V^ 

Iti the general, the horses are not of that Jarge siz6 found in the ' 
3lidd!e and Western States, but are of medium size, particularly those 
wised by the ; French ; yet, occasioually, one may, see larg6 horses^ 
am^ng them, and cattle, sheep, etc., also. The size 6f cattle seems 
jiot to afiect their market value as beef and mutton, it being thought 
by epicu/es to be of the best quality. I speak of the French in this 



tbe^ 

ipric 
;mai 



I 



hei\ 



h 



»*ons, beets, cig- 
celeiy, lettuce, 
)cantelopesan(t 
been mentioned 
and cant«Iope8, 
United States, 
market-place* 

of New Yoi],, 
t if comparison 
the Province, 
he diminutive 
pears, plums 
fruit is culti^ 
'ns are raised 
eberries, and 

Other ideas 
aduced when 

We towns, 
"^erica in 
ir own agri- 
%an, 1851, 
■ to Canada 
g: the same 



^d in the 
ariy those 
r^ horses 
tie seems 

r thought 
li in this 



NOTES OF CANADA WEST. 



19 



tion, because it is well known, they form no inconsiderable part 
le ptffmlation. Among English, and other farmers, more atten- 
tion is paid to improving stock — competition is as spiritedly carried 
)n as in the States, consequently cattle and horses of the finest kinds, 
sas to size and repute, are owned by them. The Canadian pony, with 
them, gives place to the fine English draft and carriage horse, and 
Durham and other kine of celebrity are justly appreciated. The 
^ pride of Canadian farmers, as shown in a fine selection of such ani- 
[mals, is not at all less than that of their * 'American'* neighbors : a& 
before said, the highest premiums given, for superior cattle and sheep 
atBochester and Detroit, in 1861, were received by Canada farmers. 
To understand fully the resources of the Canadas in this particular, 
both as to quantity and quality, for labor or other purposes, a view 
of the well stocked farms, with their swarms of horses, oxen, cows, 
sheep and hogs, would well repay a visit to the country, to those skep- 
tical on these points, or to see the excellent beef, mutton, veal and 
pork, exposed for sale— unsurpassed any where for quality and 
abundance. Prices vary as elsewhere, according to demand, but 



ordinarily they are : ■■*f^i^mm^^^i^'m . :-.^ ^- .^^ 



♦Beef, 
^, Muttons 

Pork, 






5 
4 
6 and 6 " 



«< i-:-^if>''i^f^i^m-^'i. 



(( 



:M 



m-' 






hii.W 



Again, the butter and cheese, derived directly from these animals, 
must be* and are, superior, from the nature of the pasture and other 
food eaten; though, from the circumstance of recent settlement, 
means cf disposal and abundance, matters in the housewife's depart- , 
ment are not generally so thoroughly conducted as in more populous 
and older settled countries, where a competition of tastes and judg- 
ment, in managing these articles and arranging for the market, is 
freely indulged. The comparative cost of keeping stock is little, the 
summer pastures affording ample hr that season ; in winter, many 
mark their horses, and turn them out in the woodlands and open 

*Fric^ of meat are not nniform, as before said, and owing to the increased demand 
prices have risen very recently, to the ordinary price in the States. That, of conrse, 
wiUnotbethB.nttehence£(»ih,batwill be determinedly thesupply. 




14 



KOTSa OF OANADA WEST. 



country, wbero they never fail of a supply of roots ahdi git|iiM||. 
Numbers are seen in mid- winter, looking as well as those h/MMed 4P 
fed. The snow» protect the grasses, and from their peculiar length 
and frequency, animals subsist well on the matter they are thus en- 
abled to get by removing them, and from the early giowth of shrtdtw 
in the woods. The farms generally, have chickens, turkeys, gees*, 
and other fowls, in great numbers ; and they meet with a ready sale 
-^prices are generally for poultry twashtUings and two and siz-penc« 
the pair, when in great plenty ; eggs 10 cents and t3^ cents the doz^ 
en, and may be disposed of in any quantity to the traders without 
leaving the farm : niunerous hucksters go< in all directions through the 
country to purchase, to sell again in the large cities. In the winter, 
these articles, in common with vegetables and other commodities, are 
often sold at a rate that in the United States would be called higjby 
the rapidly increasing population making the ordinary simply insuf- 
ficient. Geese uniformly command two shillings ; turkeys one dol-^ 
lar, domesticated or wild. There is an abundance of game, snd 
turkeys meet with ready sale. Hunting is much the custom of all 
classes, and ducks, squirrels, (black,) pigeons, (^er, hares, quails,, 
pheasants, and other game, are brought down in great nunkbers. 
Wild animals are not troublesome, though in remote districts, an 
occasional bear or wolf is seen ; foxes also*make depredations ^.ttones^ 
but not frequently. 



at a 
ma) 
ace 
fan 



'A:.- 



Hat 



'H >£l i'X 



PmC^lS OF LAND IN THE COUNTRY— CITY PROPERTY, &C. 

*"^e country in the vicinity of Toronto and to the eastward, beihg 
thickly settled, (farms being advertised "thirty miles on Yonge 
street,") the price of property is, of course, very much higher than 
in the western districts^ City property varies according to location — 
two hundred dollars the foot, is the value of lots in good position in 
Toronto : in the suburbs very fine lots may be had at reasonable 
rates. Farms, at a few miles distant, range from thirty to* fifty dol- 
lars the acre— fifty dollars being thought a fair Jrice for the best 
quality of land with improvements ; but in the western districts, farms 
may be bought for one thousand dollars, superior in every way, to- 



«* 



JNOTSS OF CANADA W.BBT. 



i 

hMned^gl 
iliar length 
tre thus en- 
1 of shrubs 
eys, gees*, 
ready 8a]» 
i six-peno» 
ts the doz- 
ers without 
irough the 
^e winter, 
xiities, are 
«ed high, 
)ply insuf- 
's one dol- 
rame, and 
torn of all 
>s, quails,, 
nuinbers^ 
itriets, an 
rattimes^ 



•di t>eing 
s Yonge 
lier than 

■ ■ 1 ». 

;ation->-» 
sition m 
sonable 
% dol- 

.■V'.-.- 

ihe hest 
» farms 
yay, to«^ 






16 

• 

fami9 near the city of Toronto, that are hold at fire thousand. Im- 
WptlMli^iaBds, near Chatham, London, Hamilton, and other towns 
Hmk, mMil^e bought at prices varying from ten up to one hundred : 
at a few miles distant, uncleared lands, belonging to Government, 
may be had by paying one dellar sixty -two cents, two, and two fifty, 
according to locality — well timbered and watered, near cultivated 
farms on the river and lake shore. Thousands of acres, of the very 
best land in the Provmce, are now in the market at the above prices, 
and either in the interior, or weU situated as to prospect from the 
lakes, and near excellent markets. The land i& laid out in what are 
called concessions, these concessions, or blocks, being sub-divided 
into lots. There is, therefore, a TLuiformity of aj^^earanoe throughout 
in the farms, and no contest about roads 4»n individual property can 
result— the roads being designed to benefit equally contiguous prop* 
erty, and under jurisdiction of "Government One hundred acres is 
the swallest quantity to be had of Government, but individual holders 
sell in quantities to suit purchasers. Large quantities of land are 
held by individuals, though at a higher rate generally than that held 
by Government ; and their titles are ssdd to be often defective. In 
every respect, the preference should be for purchases of Government 
— ^land is cheaper, as well situated, and below a specified number of 
acres, may not be bought ; a prohibition of advantage to many who 
would buy, as there is induced a spirit of enterprise and competition^ 
and a sense of responsibility. Too many are now indepeitdenUy drag- 
ging along miserably, on the few acres, ten, twenty, or such a mat- 
ter, bought at the high rates «f individual holders', in a country in 
which the prices must, fot a long time, require more land in process 
of culture, to afford a comfortable support. There is every induce- 
ment to buy, (near or in towns, as well as in the country, as land is 
cheap, business increasing, with the steady increase of population, n^ 
lack of employment at fair prices, and no complexional or other qucd- 
ification in ezisteaice. - 

LABOBr-TRADES. 

In Canada, as in other recently settled countries, there is much to 
*do, and comparatively few for the work. The numerous to^T.;.i and 



16 



aOTES OF CANADA W£8T. 



villages springing tip, and the great demand for timber and aglicul' 
turul products, make labor of every kind plenty : all trades. Ihat are 
practiced in tlie United States, arc there patronized by y^tSff^o^j^ 
carried on — no man's complexion affecting his business. If a colored 
man understands his business, he receives the public patronage the 
same as a white man. He is not obliged to work a little better, and 
at a lower rate — there is no degraded class to identify him with, 
therefore every man's work stands or falls according to merit, not as 
is his color. Builders, and other tradesmen, of different complexions, 
work together on the same building and in the same shop, with per- 
fect harmony, and often the proprietor of an establishment is colored, 
and the majority or all of the men employed are white. Businesses 
that in older communities have ceased to remunerate, yield a large 
per centage to the money invested. 

The mineral resources of the Canadas not being developed, to any 
extent, for fuel wood is generally used, and a profitable trade in that 
commodity is carried on ; and besides lumber for buildings, the get- 
ting out of materials for staves, coopers' stuff, and various purposes, 
affords steady employment and at fair prices, for cash. This state of 
things must increase, and assume more importance in Canada mar- 
kets, as the increasing population of the western United States bum 
and otherwise appropriate their timber. Kailroads are in process of 
construction — steamboats now ply between Toronto and the several 
towns on the lakes ; and in process of time, iron and other works will 
be in operation, it is said, all requiring their quota, and of course 
keeping up the demand. Bbards for home and, foreign markets, are 
successfully manufactured, and numerous mill-sites are fast being 
appropriated to saw and grist mills. In some sections, colored men 
are engaged in saw mills on their own account. At Dawn, a settle* 
ment on the Suydenham, (of which hereafter,) and at other points, 
this tradfe is prosecuted with profit to them. To enumerate the dif- 
ferent occupations in which colored persons are engaged, even in 
detail, would but fatigue, and would not further the end in view, 
namely : To set forth the advantage of a residence in a country, in 
which chattel slavery is not tolerated, and prejudice of colw has no 



1 



■^-rt:^.'*** •^"'*<*^' ' 



and Agrienl- 

If a colored 
atronage the 
> better, and 
y him with, 
nerit, not as 
omplexions, 
>» with per- 
is colored. 
Businesses 
sM a large 

5ed, to any 
ade in that 
s, the get- 
purposes, 
(lis state of 
nada mar- 
ates bum 
process of 
© several 
rorks will 
3f course 
•tets, are 
«t being 
>i*ed men 
a settle- 
f points, 
the dif- 
even in 
in view, 
ntry, in 
has no 



KOTES OF CANADA WEST. 



17 



exUtence vlHitcver — the adaptation of tlmt countr}% by climate, soil, 
and politiw character, to their pliysical and political necessities ; and 
.,i^iy||i|dpny of a residence there over their present position at kome. 
It will sufficie, that colored men prosecute all the different trades ; are 
store keepers, farmers-, clerks, and laborers ; and are not only unmo- 
lested, but sustained and encouraged in any business for Avhich their 
qualifications and means fit them ; and as the resources of the coun- 
try develop, new fields of enterprise will be opened to them, and 
•consequently new motives to honorable effort. 

CHURCHES— SCHOOLS . 

In the large towns and cities, as in similar communities in other 
Christian countries, the means for religious instruction are ample. 
There are "Costly churches in which all classes and complexions wor- 
ship, and no ** negro pew," or other seat for colored persons, espe- 
cially. I was forcibly struck, when at Toronto, with the contrast the 
religious community there presented, to our own larg^^ body of Ame- 
rican Christians. In the churches, originally built by the white Ca- 
nadians, the presence of colored persons, promiscuously seated, 
elicited no comment whatever. They are members, and visitors, and 
as such have their pews according to their inclination, near the door, 
or remote, or central, as best suits them. The number of colored 
persons, attending the churches with whites, constitutes a minority, I 
think. They have their *' own churches/' That that is the feature 
in their policy, which is productive of mischief to the entire body, is 
evident enough ; and the opinion of the best informed and most in- 
fluential among them, in Toronto and the large towns, is decided and 
universal. I have heard men of many years residence, and who 
have, in a measure, been moulded by the better sentiment of society, 
express deep'sorrow at the Course of colored persons, in pertinaciously 
refusing overtures of religious fellowship from the whites ; and in the 
face of all experience to the contrary, erecting Colored Methodist, 
and Baptist, and other Churches. This opinion obtains aii^ojgst 
many who, when in the United States, were connected with colored 
churches. Aside from their caste character, their influence on the 
3 . 



'm'ij 



wl 



< . 



NOTES OF OANAnA WEST. 



li 



■■ 



'II 



» '■ 



inOnii- 

9m 




stored people ib fatal. The chak'acterof the exclusive ol 
rla tends to perpetuate ignorance, both of their true posit 
Hiibjects, and of the Christian religion in its purity. If 
to observe thoughtfully tlie workings of that incipient 
Canadian African Church, of whatever denotfiination, ) in its present 
ittiperfect state, without seriously regretting that it should have been 
thought njBcessary to call it into existence. In her bosom is nurtured 
the long-standing and rankling prejudices, and hatred against whites, 
Avithout exception, that had their origin in American oppression, and 
that should have been left in the country in which they originated — 
'tis that species of animosity that is not bounded by geographical 
lines, nor suffers discrimination. 

A goodly portion of the people in the western part of the Province, 
(for there are but few in the eastern,) are enjoying superior religious 
opportunities, but the majority greatly need active missionary efiort : 
first, to teach them love to their neighbor ; and. again, to give them 
an intelligent and correct understanding of the Sacred Scriptures. 
The missionary strength, at present, consists of but six preachers — 
;§etdv« and efficient gentlemen, all of them, and self-sacrificing in the 
last degree ; and several women engaged in teaching, under the same 
^fyi^spices. Much privation, suffering, opposition, and aorrow await 
/l^e Kiissibnaiy in that field. If it were possible^ for him to foresee 
lifdat is in store f6r him there, a mission to India, or the South Sea 
Islands, would be preferable ; for, in that case, the sympathy of the 
.^^t\e, community is enlisted, and his sojourn is made as pleaisant as 
j^ssibie — the people to whom he is sent, are either as little children, 
^ipapliB apd confiding, or out-right savages ; and in that case, deadly 
tHlveinies. In this less remote field — almost in speaking distance — 
]|t<l^lect from friends, suspicion, abuse, misrepresentation, and a de- 
grading surveillance, often of serious and abiding Consequences, 
await h|m. Not directly from the fagitives— chose designed prima- 
rily to be benefitted — may assaults be looked for, at first. They po$- 
_»em Sk^site for the light, and incline to cluster around the missionary 
invaiiably. There are those who pretend to have been enlightened, 
aiMi.tohav« M heart the common good, whose in fiuence and opera- 



KUTKS OF CANADA WJMT. 



1^ 



m<3ihg< 




•lent ZionT^fthe 
) in its present 
lould have been 
'som is nurtured 
against whites, 
oppression, and 
ey originated— 
)y geographical 

•f the Province, 
perior religious 
ssionaryeflfeit; 
» to give them 
red Scriptupes. 
IX preachers— 
crificing in the 
'^der the same 
sorrow await 
lim to foresee 
^e South Sea 
'P*thy of tht^ 
« pleasant as 
ttle child^ien, 
case, deadJr 
r distance — 
»» and a de- 
nsequenoes, 
fneii prima ~ 
Ttey po^. 

wissionaRf 
a%htened. 
and opera« 



tioQ^y he ifflpAnd designedly counteracting his couHcientiuas eflforU, 
irely appealing to a common origin and kindred suffer* 
striking behind, aad bringing his character as a mistrion* 
onary, and his. operations, into discredit in the eyes of a sympathiiing 
Christian conuMuoity. This, and more, awaits those who nay be called 
to the field ; i)vd the case is not a hopeless ose. The native good sense 
oft he fi^itives, backed by proper schools, will eventually develop the 
ireat character of their operations and sacrifices. They and their 
t'ami£esv. of all others, should have the support of Christians. 

The lefugees express a strong desire for inteUectnal culture, and 
persons often beg^l their education at a time of life when many in 
other eountries think they ace too old. There are no separate schoohi: 
at Toronto and in many other places, as in the churches, the colored 
people avail themselves of existing schools ; bui in the western coun- 
try, in some sections, thei-e is a tendency to> f'cxclasiveness." The 
colored people of that section petitioned, when the Schod Law was 
under revision, that they might have separate schools : there were 
counter petitions hy those opposed, and tO' satisfy all parties, twelve 
freeholders among them, can, by following a prescribed form, demand 
a school ^or their children ; but if other schools, under patronage of 
Government, exist, (as Catholic or Protestant,) they can cliemaiid 
admission into them, if they have not one. They are not compelled 
to hare a colored sehool. The following is that portion of the School, 
law that directly reliates to them :. 

"And be it enacted, That it shall be the duty of the l|umoil{)i^> 
Council of ai^y township, and of the Board of School Trustees olfi^f 
city, town or i^C)p)orated village, on th^ application in wftlwg 0f 
twelve or more remdent heads of families, to authorise the e8||Mi||i- 
me|it of one or more separate schook for Protestants, Boipm Q(i#^ 
lies or (Bolor^ people, and, in such case, it shall prescribe th# lii^inl 
the divisions or actions for such school, and shfill ms^ ^^ sa^^ 
proyisions for the holing of the first meeting for the;elec<«Qn|Of Tfm- 
tee^ of each suph separate school or schools, as is pm^^^^ in tlie 
fourth section of this Act for holding th6 fira^t school meMiog in a new 
scho<>l section : Provided always, th»^e?ich 6epar|kt(|j «j)iool sha^go 




< ■ !>!<■ i »wi i ' ii»<B^i>a" 



N0TI8 or CANADA \yj£8T. 

into operation at the same time with alterations in Hchooi 
shall be under the same regttlations in respect to tht 
whom such school is permitted to bo established, as a1 
schools generally : Provided, secondly, tliat none but c( lore'! •^'=?oplo 
shall be allowed to vote for tlie election of Trustees cX iiie eparate 
school for their children, and none but the parties petitioBing for tho 
establishment of, or sending children to a separate i^rotestant or Ro- 
maii Catholic school, shall vote at the election of Truste<s ff such 
schools : Provided, thirdly, that eacli separate Protestant, or Roman 
Oatholic, or colored school, shall be entitled to share in the school 
fund according to the av;^- go attendance of pupils attending each 
such separate school, (the n>ean attendance of pupils for both sum- 
mer and winter being taken, ) as compared with tho average attend- 
ance of pupils attending the common schools in such city, town, vil- 
lage or township : Provided, fourthly, that no Protestant separate 
"chool shall be allowed in any school division, except when the 
teacher of the common school is a Roman Catholic, nor shall any Ro- 
man Catholic separate school be allowed ci^jcpt \v>.on the teacher of 
the common school is a Protestant." 

Afl before said, the facilities for obtaining a liberal education, are 
ami>^« in the larg^ towns and cities. In Toronto, students of all 
com| i'^arions associate together, in the better class schools and colle- 
ges, 7b<: o^=jratioi» of missionaries being chiefly among colored, 
pecp'iv;;, thty haveeiiablished several schools in connection with their 
laboc J, yei. they are open to children without exception. The colored 
o^iiiliAon schools have more of a compknonal character than the pri- 
vile, id^iiefa, with no exception that I have heard of, are open to all; 
Tti# Aet of Parliament above refert^ to, was designed to afford the 
IttlfesSt and ttiost equable facilitieis for instruction to all, and that par- 
tiottlir clause was insei>ted with the view to satisfy them, though less 
.iol)jeel^onablerto'the body of them, than what they asked for. 

<^l fugitives, in some instances, settled on Government land be- 
^Mri it came into market, cleared away and improved it. Their friends 
eHfliHUshed schools which were flourishing, when they were obliged to 
tip, and the|NK>pleto disperse, because of inability to purchase 



iona, and 




NOTEB OF CANADA WK»T. 



tf 



U; 



C( !or*"' ^oplo 
r the 'Cparate 
m'mg for tlio 
testant or Ro- 
iiste<'s f'f such 
mt, or Homan 
in the school 
ttending each 
for both sum- 
'erage attcnd- 
ity, town, vil- 
itant separate 
ipt when the 
shall any Ro- 
he teacher of 

iducation, are 
udents of all 
ols and coUe- 
nong colored, 
on with their 

The colored 
than the pri- 

open to all; 
to afford the 
nd that par- 

though less 
or. 

ent land be- 

rheir friends 

re obliged to 

to purchase 






i; I ether Jlons buying. This cause luis, in a rrraKMrc', rc-tnrdeift 

jjjllllljJMpgeneral informutiun amongst tlu'm. 
|g3Hp|K, twenty or jnoro families arc often settled near on(^ an- 
other, or interspersed among the French, Dutch, fcjcotcb, Irish and 
Indians, in the woodland districts: often, English is not spoken. 
There may not bo an EngJish school, and all rcA el Ujgether in happy 
ignorance. Nothing but the sound of the nxe, ; iwl their own crude 
ideas of independence, to inspire them, unless it .>e an Indian camp 
tire occasionally. This may be rather an uninvitin ; state of aflfairs to 
tliose living in crowded cities, but it is true there arc numerous grown 
up families, of white and colored, who do not know 1' But as uninter- 
esting as is the detail, in this particular aspect of rhisc affairs, t^io 
signs are encouraging. If they went to labor honenily, in a region 
semi-barbarous, tliey have eut their way out, and are now able to^ 
make themselves heard in a demand for religious in^ ructors of the 
right kind, and schools. Many efficient persons have devoted their 
time and talents to their instruction, but there has not been anything 
like an equal number to the work : neither are they often found to 
have materials to work with. Individuals in the United States often 
send books to those most needy, yet they are usually of sueh a char- 
acter as to be utterly useless. I have often thought, if it is really a bene- 
volent act w send old almanacs, old novels, and all manjior of obsolete 
bouks to them, what good purpose was accomplished, o* even what 
sort of vanity was grtitilSed, by emptying the useless <ionteiit8 of old 
libraries on destitute fugitives ? It would be infinftefy better not id^ 
give, dt seems, though probably persons sending thend thitik ctifilKl^- 
entiy. The case is aggravated from the feet of a real de8i!^^f:6)ai tfei 
part of the recipients, to learn, and their formei' want of oppot^ify. 
Probably the propensity to give is gratified j but why not give/wh^eh 
^fta are needed, of that which is uteftfl ? Bbt the c[ae8t!on; If it w 
answering any good purpose to give such things as "books ^veii,1Ml 
«ot been satisfactorily answered in the affirmative, to ^rioi^ who 
hare seen <ihe fugitiiires ii> their Canadian holmes/ 



i^ 



i; 



' M 



I 



! P 



\ ? 



■I 



li 



il f ' 



Is 



h 



22 



KOTBS OF CANADA WEST. 




SETTLEMENTS,— DAWN,— ELGIN,— INSTITUTION,— FU( 

Much has been said of the Canada colored settlemei 
liave been expressed by many, that by cncouragiog 
ments, the attempt to identify colored men with degraded men of 
like color in the States would result, and as a conSeC|tienee, estrange- 
ment, suspicion, and distrust would be induced. Such would inevita- 
bly be the result, and w^ill be, shall they determine to have entirely 
proscriptive settlements. Those in existence, so far as I h^-ve been 
able to get at facts, do not exclude whites from their vicinity ; bat 
that settlements may not be established of that character, is not so 
certain. Dawn, on the Siiydenhara river, Elgin, or King's Settle- 
ment, as it is called, situated about ten miles from C^iatham, are 
settlements in which there are regulations in regard to morals, the 
purchase of lands, etc., bearing only on the colored people ; but 
whites are not excluded because of dislike. When purchase was 
made of the lands, many white families were residents, — at least, lo- 
cations were not selected in which none resided. At first, a few sold 
out, fearii|g that such neighbors might not be agreeable ; others, and 
they the majority, concluded to remain, and the result attests their 
superior judgment. Instead of an increase of vice, prejudice, im- 
providence, laziness, or a lack of energy, that many feared would 
ch9ff|cterize them, the infrequency of violations of law among so 
many, is unprecedented ; due attention to moral and intellectual 
culture has been given ; the former prejudices on the part of ike 
whites^ has given place to a perfect reciprocity of religious and social 
iAteroomiiiunieati(m. Schools are patronized equally ; the gospel 
is common, and hospitality is shared alike by all. The school for 
tliQ^ettiers, fit Elgin, is so far superior to the one established for white 
cjhijblrenr that the latter was discontinued, and, as before said, all send 
together, and visit in common thie Presbyterian church, ther€ estsb*; 
U^d. , Soof Pawn ; thftt settlement is exceedingly flourishing, and 
%\^ moiral influence it exerts is good, though, owing to some recent 
arrangeinents, regulations designed to further promote its importance 
are being made. Land has increased in value in those settlements. 
.f*fbpei'ty that was worth but little, from the superior- culture given 



be 



% 






NOTSfi OF CANADA WEST*. 



S3 



I J)y colored! 
creftsing di 



fmaded men of 
nee, estrange- -I 
"ouW inevita- 
Bare entirely 

I h^vebeen 
vicinity; bnt 
^r, ia not so 
Jng*8 Settfe- 
-"hatbam, are 
> morals, the 
people; but 
»Qrchase was 
-at least, lo- 
*» a few sold 
others, and 
attests their 
Bjudice,im- 
ared would 
among so 
intellectual 
art of the 
and social 
he gospel 
school for 
[ for white 
U all send 
Jre estab- 
hiiig,and 
►e recent 
poftance 
fements. 
fe given 



sons over the method before practiced, nn^thein* 
es for country homes, is held much higher. Another 
rth a passing notice, is, that a spirit of competition is 
eir vicinity. Efforts are now put forth to produce more 
to the acre^ aind to have the land and tenements present a tidy appear*^ 
ance. That others than those designed to be benefitted by the or- 
gaaizatiosn, should be, is not reasonable, else might persons, not meHi- 
bers of a society justly claim equal benefits with members. If Irish- 
men should subscribe to certa^ regulations on purchasing laDid, no 
neighboring landholders could rightfully share with them in the re- 
sult of that organization. But prejudice would not be the cause of 
<exc}usioh. Bo it is of those two settlements; it cannot be said of 
them, that they are caste institutions, so long as they do not express 
liostility to the whites.; but the question of their necessity hi tlie 
prelnises may be raised, and often is, by the settlens in Canadi%i 
well as in the States. The "Institution" is a settlement Under the iB^ 
i^ectiion of the A. M. E. Church ; it contains, at present, two hundred 
acres^ and is soM out in ten acre faims, at one dollar arid fiffy cents 
per acne, or one shilling less than cost. They have recently opened 
a school, and there is a log meeting house in an unfinished state, also 
a bullying ground. There aro about fifteen families settled on the 
land, most of whom have cleared away a few trees, but it is not in a very 
proq»erous condition, owing, it is said, to bad management of ageiitS'— 
a result to be looked fbr when a want of knowledge chirai^teris^ 
them. This "Institution" bids fair to be one. nucleus around wbi<^ 



.#' 



easte settlements will cluster in Canada. 

The Refugees' Home is the last of the settlements of W^Q^IitittJ^ 
speak in liiiflLplace. How many othei^are in contemplAtio#t dii fi&t 
knotr, thdifpi I heard of at least two others. Thi$ Sodet^' i« de« 
signed to appropriate fifty thousand (wie^ of land for fugftlv«ii $nm 
slavery, iinli^, but at piesent the agents have in posseseiioii tWoliiiliiM 
a^res, situated about eight miles from Windsor/^ il»e w%it«[^#si- 
(rict. The plan is to sell faims of twenty-five acreft/^»t i»«<<i gfvii 
five acres to actual settlers, with the privilege of buying Ifcft 
ing twenty ?*3re8, at the market valuf — -vhe-tlwrd of the ptireha^m 



(pllp'»*wf^»'''?^'" 



'W 



H / j 






24 



SOTES OP CANADA WEST. 




eonstitntcs a fund for school a„H .m * 

fen to pay for the t.ent; L" 3 w" """'i'"" '^ "%" ^^^ "^ 

Wis.society may now be coS L "" "'^'"' ™«l««U-»-I.te. 

^purchase, though, as yet nn t "'""""""^ "'l^ltolie 

*» be looked for fr „ rk'T '^' ^''«"'<' "-"eo". a*SllHE 

^i" have an -portant;eX ;:?';' ^^ '*''' ''^ "P-"-' 
-Wed in^ Canada, or who Z^^aJ ^"^ P-P'« 'J"- - now 

-eiety. actuated by benevolent 11^1'"; "'^^^O-^'-e 
*". oppression and the odious Fu^Zr '""""' "^ ^'^'"' 

-«ccc«,<,f the »,asu«, but not so unter^"; ::""»""" "*° «■* 
*ven among those designed to be ZZT^ ''^""'^''^^^''>'' 

*-' ^"^ »"« a<iia, onl :?lr:^t: Vr ^"^ '*'^'* 
laown th« the Fugitive BiU mates HT '"*S"'»d«- » is well 

• »«..^hose^ are aUke at tt ^^ o^- ""^ "°'«"™ -'-<• 
q»e»tly.many always free^^lM ?"*"' «'««J'.-««.se- 

««e in Canada, and other cl»n^^',l *'•''''''* ^"''«'J States, «d 

"otthat 1.^ b^n enacten: Z T""""'' "" ""*'-"««' 
<=oiowatio„ influence prevails, they wi? '^'^^^^. or wB.« 
amvc in Canada destitute, in cowZr 1 *'" ""'"''''«' ""ey 
^dpfib. Refugees' Home frl th^^ ' ""^"■°' ^"'"o- «■« 
-ieuitiswellbfown th J^^ iTw ""'?' "^ -minal f„edom, 

:f *»-^ labor whe:;;:::7b;:tsT*« ^'^"'"' ■"• 

'n^peouam^ way, that colored men have „ . "PPOrtMities, 

Agam, the poMcy of slaveholders has been" '" '"'"« ^"""""^ "O'"". 
/«« pople in the bosom of tb«, «i '''**^ * contempt for 

*6y*.Sp^y. Their journey to cZ;,™''r"^'''^«'''"''% have 

%v«. is ge^^rally "Lad by otrd '"""'"'^ birth, « free or 
P^r^^. his better ^d ^'£7^'""' '''•"" "« - 
«»«». ««mbe^ of tbcsame familyT " TT '''"•^' *«-'" 

•^Wari. ,Agai«, the Zi.ty w h It ^ T'^ '""'^ " ""' '^^'r 

"♦» readjr,„«b.,for itsJands will not !l. T^ ^'^'''' ■"*"' ''"'» 
, :: *" ' *'" "»' "'"'« goverament purchases, 



_Jk|ua*v,^ 



.'*','. «v*aBwi!T^'^- ■ ^ 



♦ 



KOTfiS OF CANADA W&ST. 



26 



pn years ar^ 




^^ operations, 
^ho are now 
frieads of the 
n»s of Ameri- 
"j»e as to the 
>nia!it8favoy, 
all the objec- 
good ag^aiBst 
i' k weJI 
hem eolored 
*th,--*eoase- 
States, aad 
naained had 
'S, or where 
rifice; they 

ettleonthe 
*1 freedom, 
Isgrace at* 
'ortunities^ 
ions north, 
itemptfor 
^^^y have 
ot rooted 
w free or 
ot be as 
discord 
1 made, 
>t likely 

in the 
n, with 
bases ; 



'm 



neither dcMK contemplate large blocks, exclusively, but, as in the 
rst purchiip land, wherever found, and in small parcels also. From 
nature of the many settlements, (as fugitive homes,) 
enTr*s!iall be known for what use it is wanted, individual holders 
will not sell but for more than the real value, thus embarrassing poor 
men who would have bought on time, and as an able pwchaser from 
government, the society must have a first choice. The objections 
in common with other settlements, are : the individual supervision of 
resident agents, and the premium indirectly oflfered for good beha- 
vior. **We are free men," say they who advocate independent ejQfort, 
** we, as other subjects, are amenable to British laws ; we vish to 
observe and appropriate to ourselves, ourselves, whatever of good 
there is in the society around us, and by our individual efforts, to at- 
tain to a respectable position, as do the many foreigners who land on 
the Canada shores, as poor in purse as we were ; and we do not w^irt 
agents to beg for us." The accompanying are articles in the Con- 
stitutions .' « 1 >,.M < fi;'.^_f"i;' Tti.jjr- -■. ./ '.Wf?(w.'«V*/ ■if.^%^ 

Article 2. The object of this society shall be to obtain permanent 
homes for the refugees in Canada, and to" promote their moral, so- 
cial, physical, intellectual, and political elevation. 

Article 11. This society shall not deed lands to any but actual 
settlers, who are refugees from southern slavery, and who are the 
owners of no land. • 

Article 12. All lands purchased by this society, shall be divided 
into twenty-five acre lots, or as near as possible, and at least one-tenth 
of the purchase price of which shall be paid down by actual'sMer^ 
before possession is given, and the balance to be paid in equal annual 
instalments. i^m^'M*.: 

Article 13. One-third of all money paid in for land by settlers, 
shall be used for educational purposes, for the benefit of said settlers* 
children, and the other two-thirds for the purchase of more lands for 
the same object, while chattel slavery exists in the United States. 

BY-LAWS. 

No person shall receive more than five acres of land from this so: 
ciety, at less than cost. , 



ft' 



26 



MOTBS OF CANADA WEST;- 



•tp: 



'■ I' 



( 



Article 4. No person shall be allowed to remove anj^limber from 
said land until the j have first made payment thereon. 

These are the articles of most importance, and, as will 
contemplate more than fifty thousand acres continual purcEases, 
slavery shall cease ; and other terms, as will be seen by Art. 13 of 
Con., and Art. 4, By-Laws, than most fugitives just from slavery can 
comply with, (as destitute women with families, old men, and single 
women,) until after partial familiarity with their adopted country. 
This, say many colored Canadians, begins not to benefit until a man 
has proven his ability to act without aid, ^nd is fit for political equal- 
ity by his own industry, that money will get for him at any time. * 

POLITICAL RIGHTS— ELECTION LAW—OATH— CURRENCY. 

There is no legal discrimination wl)atever effecting colored emi- 
grants in Canada, nor from any cause whatever are their privileges 
sought to be abridged. On taking proper measures, the most ample 
redress can be obtained. The following " abstracts of acts," bearing 
equally on all, and observed fully by colored men qualified, will give 
an idea of the measures given them :* 

" The qualifications of voters at municipal elections in townships, 
are freeholders and householders of the township or ward, entered 
on the roll for rateable real property, in their own right or that of 
their wives, as proprietors or tenants, and resident at the time in the 
township or ward." 

" In towns, freeholders and householders for rateable real property 
!n tbdr own rames or that of their wives, as proprietors or tenants to 
the amount of £5 per annum or upwards, resident at the time in the 
ward. The property qualification of town voters may consist partly 
of freehold and partly of leasehold." 

In villages it is £3 and upwards, with freehold or leasehold ; in 
cities £,Z. 

The Ittws regulating, elections, and relating to electors, are not 
^»milar in the two Canadas ; but colored persons are not affected by 

mk more than others. 



'^Scobies' Casadian Almanac for 1653. 



NOTES OF CANADA WEST. 



£7 




urchaees, 
y Art. 13 of 
sl&Tery can 
k» and single 
ed country, 
until a man 
tical equal- 
^ time. ■ 

3NCY. 

►lored emi- 
privileges 
Qost ample 
/* bearing 
U "will give 

ownships, 
I. entered 
r that of 
3Ae in the 

property 
enants to 
le in the 
»t partly- 
old ; in 

are not 
ted by 



« No p9iM| )3ball be entitled to vote at county elections, wf o has 
not vested^MPhim, by legal title, real property in said county of the 
4^l^l^yg||rl| value of forty-four shillings and five pence and one far- 




g, currency. Title to be in fee simple or freehold under tenure of 
free and common soccage, or in Jief in raiure, or in f ram alien, or de- 
rived from the Governor and Council of the late Province of Quebec, 
or Act of Parliament' Qualification, to be effective, requires actual 
and uninterrupted possession on the part of the elector, or that he 
should have been in receipt of the rents and profits of said property 
for his own use and benefit at least six months before the date of the 
writ of election. But the title will be good without such anterior pos- 
session, if the property shall have come by inheritance, devis3, mar*' 
riage or contract of marriage, and also if the deed or patent from the 
Crown on which he holds to claim such estate in Upper Canada, have 
been registered three calendar months before the date of the writ of 
election. In Lower Canada, possession ofi^he property under a writ- 
ten promise of sale registered, if not a notarial deed, for twelve month* 
before the election, to be sufficient title to vote. In Upper Canada, 
a conveyance to wife after marriage must have been registered three 
calendar months, or husband have been in possession of property six 
months before election." 

"Only British subjects of the full age of twenty-one are allowed to 
vote. Electors ma^'^ remove objection by producing certificate, or by 
taking the oath." 

These <}ontain no proscriptive provisions, and there are none. Col- 
ored men comply with these provisions and vote in the administiratioii 
of afi'airs. There is no difference made whatever ; and even in the 
slight malter <^f taking the census it is impossible to get at the exact 
number of whites or colored, as they are not designated as- such* 
There is, it is true, petty jealousy nianifested at times by individuals, 
which is made use of by the designing; but impartiality and strict/ 
justice characterise proceedings at law, and the bearing of the laws. 
The oath, as prescribed by law, is as follows : ■ 

" I, A. B., do sincerely promise and swear,* that I will bear fai^- 
ful and true allegiance to Her Majesty Queen Victoria, as laV^I 



■n. 



t' 



28 



. NOTES OF CANADA WEST. 




Sovereign of the United Kingdom of Great Britian ailplreland, and 
of this Province of Canada, dependent on and belongirillto the said 
United Kingdom, and that I will defend her to the utt^|pni||^Jr 
power against all traitors, conspiracies and attempts whatever 
shall b6 made against Her Person, Crown and Dignity, and that I 
will do my utmost endeavor to disclose and make known to Her 
Majesty, Her Heirs and Successors all treasons and traitorous con- 
spiracies and attempts which I shall know to be against Her or any 
of them, and all this I do swear without any equivocation, mental 
evasion, or secret reservation, and ,renouncing all pardons and dispen*- 
sations from persons whatever, to the contrary. So help me God.'' 
* "The Deputy Returning Officer may administer oath of allegiance 
to persons who, according to provisions of any Act of Parliament, 
shall become, on taking such oath, entitled to the privileges of British 
birth in the Province." 

** Persons knowing themselves not to be qualified, voting at elec- 
"tions, incur penalty of £10 ; and on action brought, the burden of 
proof shall be on the defendant. Such votes null and void." 

*' The qualifications of Municipal Councillors are as follows : — 
Township Councillor must be a freeholder or householder of the 
township or ward, * * * as proprietor or tenant rated on the 
roll, in case of a freeholder for j£lOO or upwards ; householder for 
£200 or upwards : Village Councillor, in case of a freeholder, for 
£10 or upwards ; a householder for £20 and upwards : Town 
' Councillor, in case of a freeholder £20 per annum ; if a householder 
to the amount of £40 and upwards. The property qualification of 
Town Councillors may be partly freehold and partly leasehold." 

A' tenant voter in town or city must have occupied h"^ actual resi- 
dence, as a separate tenant, a dwelling house or houses for twelve 
months, of the yearly value of £i 1 2s. l^d. currency, and have paid 
a year's rent, or that amount of money for the twelve months imme- 
diately preceding the date of election ivrit. A person holding onfy a 
shop or place of business, but not actually residing therein, is not 
en^tled to vote. And a voter having changed his residence within, 
the^^wn during the year, does not aiOfect his right to vote, but must 
vot4;in the ward in which h^ resides on the day. 



mff 



freland, and 
^to the said 

tever wIM 
and that I 
5wn to Her 
orous con- 
fer or any 
)n, mental 
md dispen- 
me God." 
allegiance 
arliament, 
of British 

gatelec- 
t)urden of 

Hows : — 
3r of the 
d on thf» 
>lder for 
Ider, for 
Town 
ieholder 
■ation of 
[d." 

al resi- 
twelve ' 
ve paid 
imme- 
only a 
is not 
Within. 
; must 



N0TB8 OP CANADA WE8T. 29 

-^ ARTICLES EXEMrT TROM Dl'TY. 
The foUoiiJiig arc some of the articles exempt from duty on impor- 




lode^ of machinery and other inventions and improvements in 
the arts. Horses and carriages of travelers ; and horses, cattle and 
carriages and other vehicles when employed in carrying merchandize, 
togetiier with the necessary harness and tackle, so long as the same 
shall be bona fide in use for that purpose, except the horses, cattle, 
carriages and harness of persons hawking goods, wares and merchan- 
dize through the Province for the purpose of retailing the same, and 
the horses, cattle, carriages and harness of any circus or equestrian 
troop for exhibition ; the horses, cattle, carriages and harness of any 
to be free." 

" Donations of clothing specially imported for the use of or to be 
distributed gratuitously by any charitable society in this Province." 

" Seeds of all kinds, farming utensil« and implements of husbandry, 
when specially imported in good feith by any society incorporated or 
established for the encouragement of agriculture," 

*' Wearing apparel in actual use, and other personal effects not 
merchandize; horses and cattle; implements and tools of trade of 
handicraftsmen." 

* * * " Trees, shmbs, bulbs and roots ; wheat and Indian 
com ; animals specially imported for the improvement of stock ; 
paintings, drawings, maps, busts, printed books, (not foreign reprints 
of British copy- right works,) ashes, pot and pearl, and soda." * 

' CURRENCY OF* CANADA. 



OOLD. 

The British Sovereign when of full weight, 
U. S. Eagle, coined before 1st July 1884, 



U. S. Eagle, between 1st of July, 1834, and 1st of July 



CURRENCY. 

£1 4s 4d. 
£1 13s ^d 



1851, 

SILVER, 

British Crown, 

Half cr^wn, 

Shilling, 

Sixpence, 

The dollar. 

Half " 

U. S. qutfrier dollar, 

Other •' 

U, S. eighth 



<< 



Gs 

3 

1 



5 

2 

1 

1 





Id 



2 

H 
1 

H 
s 



u 



£2 10s Od 

SILVER. 

Other eighth silver dollar, Os 6d 



U. S. sixteenth dollar, 

Other « " a 

Five franc piece, 4 

COPPER. 

British penny, ^ , 

halfpenny, 

farthing, 



(« 



3 

8 






30 



NOTES OF CANADA WEST. 



•ABSTRACT OP LAW OF SUCCESSION IN UPPErCANADA. 

♦ * * "Be it therefore enacted, &c., That wtilpMiver, on or 
after the first day of January, which will be in the yeaihllf ^^gfjM^^ 
one thousand eight hundred and fifty-two, any person shall die siezed 
in fee simple or for the life of another of any real estate in Upper Can- 
ada, without having lawfully devised the same, such real estate shall 
descend or pass by way of succession in manner following, that is to 
say: 

Firstly — ^To his lineal descendants, and those claiming by or under 
themt per stirpes. 

Secondly — To his fatlier. 

Thirdly — ^To his mother : and 

Fourthly — ^To his collateral relatives. 

Subject in all cases to the rules and regulations hereinafter pre- 
scribed. 

. 2. " That if the intestate shall leave several descendant^ in the 
direct line of lineal descent, and all of equal degree of consanguinity 
to such intestate, the inheritance shall descend to such persons in 
equal parts, however remote from the intestate the common degree of 
consanguinity may be. 

3. " That if any of the children of such intestate be living, and any 
be d6ad, the inheritance shall descend to the children who are living, 
a^d to the descendants of such children as shall have died, so that 
each child who shall be living shall inherit such share as would have 
descended to him if all the children of the intestate who shall have 
died, leaving isi^ue, had been living, and so that the descendants of 
each child who shall be dead shall inherit the share which their pa* 
rents would have received, if living, in equal shares. 

*' 18. That children and relatives who are illegitimate shall not be 
entitled, to inherit under any of the provisions of this Act." 

THE THIRTY THOUSAND COLORED FREEMEN OF CANADA. 

The colored subjects of her Majesty in the Canadas are, in the 
general, in good •ircumstance^, that is, there are few cases of positive 

^,M and 15 Vic. Cap. 6—1851. Scobie. 



i 



destitution i 
settled pr 




NOTES OF CANADA WIST. 



f 



31 



found among those permanently settled. They are 
uously in cities, towns, villages, and the farming dis* 
equal number of colored men in the States, north or 
south, can produce more freeholders. They are settled on, and own 
portions of the best farming lands in the province, and own much val- 
uable property in the several cities, etc. There is, of course, a differ* 
ence in the relative prosperity and deportment in different sections, 
but a respect for, and observance of the laws, is conceded to them by 
all ; indeed, much indifference on the part of whites has given place 
to genuine sympathy, and the active abolitionists and liberal men of 
the country, look upon that element in their character as affording 
ground for hope of a bright future for ihem, and. as evidence that their 
sympathy for the free man is not misplaced, as more than compensa* 
tion for their own exertions for those yet in bonds. I have said, there 
is but little actual poverty among them. They are engaged in the 
different trades and other manual occupations. They have a paper 
conducted by the Rev. Henry Bibb, and other able men, white and 
colored, are laboring amopg them, and in view of the protection afford* 
ed, there is no good reason why they should not prosper. After the 
passage of the fugitive law, the sudden emigration of several thou- 
sand in a few months, destitute as they necessarily were, from having, 
in many instances, to leave behind them all they possessed, made not 
a little suffering for a brief period, (only among them,) and the report 
of their condition had an injurious bearing upon all the colored set- 
tlers. Clothing, provisions, and other articles were sent them, but 
often so disposed of, or appropriated, as not to benefit those for whom 
intended. Distrust of agents, indiscriminately, and altogether but 
little real good has followed from the charity. The sensible men 
among them, seeing the uad results from a general character for pov- 
erty a,nd degradation, have not been slow to expj^ess their disappro- 
bation in the social circle, in meetings, and through the public papers. 
The following extracts express fully the sentiments of nine-tenths of 
the colored men of Canada ; they think they are fully able to live 
without begging. There are others (very ignorant people,) who think 



"»•« 



32 



N0TE8 OV CANADA WEST. 



clifferontly, as ihem will bo in all communities, though ^thiyy ore in the 
minority. There are those, also, and they are a rcspect|ble minority^ 
(in point of numbers,) who are in favor of distinctive oliurfli^M |^ 
schools, and of bein^ entirely to themselves ; they will conno in for 
especial notico^but first, let us hear the people of Buxton and othar 

places : - ^ 

"if facts would bear out the statements made, the fugitives wouW 
have little to choose between slavery on one side of the line, ami 
starvation on the other: but we rejoice that he is noi reduced to the 
alternative. The man who is willing to work need not suffer, and 
unless a man supports himself he will neither be indep v dent nor re- 
spectable in any coun.try." * * * "The cry that has been often 
raise'J, that wo could not support ourselves, is a foul slander, got up 
by our enemies, and circulated both on this and the other side of the 
line, io our prejudice. Having lived many years in Canada, we hesi- 
tate not to say that all who are able and willing to work, can make 
a good living." * * ♦ Itis time the truth should be known con- 
cerning the relief that has been sent to the "suffering fugitives in 
Canada," and to what extent it has been applietl. The boxes of 
clothing and barrels of provisions which have been sent in, from time 
to time, by the praiseworthy, but misguided zeal of friends in the Uni- 
\ed States, has been employed to support the idle, who are too lazy 
to work, and who form but a small portion of the colored population 
in Canada. There are upwards of thirty thousand colored persons 
in Canada West, and not more than three thousand of them have 
ever received idd, and not more than half of them required it had they 
been willing to work. We 4o not think it right that twenty-seven 
thousand colored persoaas, who are supporting themselves by their 
own industiyi should lie under the disgrace of being called public 
beggars, when they receive nothing, and don't want anything. * * 
We wish the people of the United States to know that there is one 
portion of Canada West whiaw the colored people are self-supporting, 
and they wish them to s&nd neither petticoat nor pantaloons to the 
county of Kent. * "t ♦ ,The few cases of real want which arise 



NOTES QF CANADA WK8T. 



as 



( 



from sickneM or old age, can, with a trifling eflfort, be relieveil here, 

without inaUing it a pretext for a system of wholesale bogging in the 

United Statei." "^^ 

EDWARD R. GRANTS, ) 

SAMUEL WICKHAM, } Committee. 

. ROBERT HARRIS. ) 

"As to the state of things in Toronto and in Hamilton, I can say, 
from actual observation, that extreme suflfering is scarcely known 
among the black people, while some who are far from being as indus* 
trio us and deserving as they ought to be, receive aid to which they 
would hardly seem entitled." — S. R. Ward'sLetUtrto the Voice of iha 
Fugitive, - 

Notwithstanding the prosperity and liberal senVunent of the ma* 
^qrity, there is yet a great deal of ignorance, bigotry, prejudice* and 
idleness. There are those who are only interested in education to 
far as the establishment of separate schools, churches, 6lc., tend to 
make broad the line of separation they wish to make between them 
and the whites ; and they are active to increase their numbers, and to 
perpetuate, in the minds of the newly arrived emigrant or refugee, 
prejudices, originating in slavery, and as strong and objectionable in 
their manifestations as those entertained by whites towards them. £v* 
ery casual remark by whites is tortured into a decided and effective 
negro hate. The expressions of an individual are made to infer the 
existence of prejudice on the part of the whites, and partiality by the 
administrators of public affairs' The recently arrived fugitives, un- 
acquainted with the true state of things, is "completely convinced by 
the noisy philippic against all the "white folks," and all colored ones 
who think differently from them, and he is tlms prepared to aid dem- 
agogues in preventing the adoption of proper measures for the i^read 
of education and general, intelligence, to maintain an ascendency 
over the inferior minds around them, and to make the way of the 
missionary a path of thorns. Among thaf portion, generally, may 
those be found, who by their indolent habits, tend to give poiailto 
what of prejudice is lingering in tke minds of the whiteii; aod it 
is to be feared that they may take some misguided step now,;tiie^n- 
sequences of which will entail evil on the many who will hereafter 



34 



f . "!•■' T ': - -- 

•- NOTES OK CANADA WEST. 



settle in Canada. The only ground of hope is in the native good 
sense of those who arc now making use of the same ifi^iirumentaU- 
ties for improvement as are tlio whites around them. 

THE FRENCH ANt) FOREIGN POPULATION. 

The population of Canada consists of English, Scotch, French, 
Irish and Americans ; and, including colored persons, numbeis about 
1,582,000. Of the whites, the French are in the majority, but the in- 
creasing emigration of Irish, Scotch, English and other Europeans, is 
fast bringing about ajn equality in point of numbers that will be felt in 
political circles. In Canada West the French are in the minority. 

The disposition of the peoph generally towards colored emigrants^ 
that is, BO far as the opinions of old settlers may be taken,, and my 
own observation may be allowed, is as friendly as could be looked for 
under the circumstances. The Yankees, in the country and in the 
States adjoining, leave no opportunity unimproved to embitter their 
miiids against them. The result is, in some sections, a contemptible 
sort of prejudice, which, among English, is powerless beyond the in- 
dividual entertaining it-»-not even affecting his circle. This grows out 
of the constitution of English society, in which people are not obliged 
to think as others do. There is more independent thought and free 
depression than among Americans. The affinity between the Yan- 
kees and French is strong ; said to grow out of similar intentions with 
r^pect to polHical affairs: and they express most hostility^ but it is 
not of a complexional character only, as that lerves as a mark to 
identify men of a different policy. Leaving out Yankees — having but 
little practical experience of colored people — they, (the French,) are 
pie-dispocfed, from the influence alluded to, to deal roughly with them; 
but in the main benevolence and a sense of justice are elements in 
their character. They are not averse to truth. There is a prevailing 
hostility to chattel slavery, aikl an honest cepresentation of the colored 
people : their aims and progressive character, backed by unifoncKi 
good conduct on their part, would in a very short time des;roy every 
veftig© of.prejudice in the Province. 
/** The public mind literally thirsts for the truth, and honest listi-rt- 



I 



NOTES OF CANADA WEST. 



Sd 



ers, ond anxious inquirers will travel many miles, crowd our country 
chapels, ail4 remain for hours eagerly and patiently seeking the ligh(. 
# » ♦ ♦ Le^ ti^y ignorance now prevalent on the subject of 
slavery be met by fair and full discussion, and open and thorough in- 
vestigation, and the apathy and prejudice now existing will soon dis* 
appear." — S, R. Ward. 

Colored persons have been refused entertainment in taverns, (inva- 
riably of an inferior class,) and on some boats distinction is made ; 
but in all cases, it is that kind of distinction that is made between poor 
foreigners and other passengers, on the cars and steamboats of the 
Northern States. There are the emigrant train and the forward deck 
in the United States. In Canada, colored persons, holding the same 
relation to the Canadians, arc in some cases treated similarly. It is 
an easy letter to make out a case of prejudice in any country. Wc 
naturally look for it, and the conduct of many is calculated to cauae 
unpleasant treatment, and to make it difficult for well-mannered 
persons to get comfortable accommodations. There is a medium bo* 
tween servility and presumption, that recommends itself to all per- 
sons of common sense, of whatever rank^ or complexion ; and if 
colored people would avoid the two extremes, there would be but 
few cases of prejudices to complain of in Canada. In cases in 
which tavern keepers and other public characters persist in refusing 
to entertain them, they can, in common with the traveling public 
generally, get redress at law. 

^ Persons emigrating to Canada, need not hope to find the general 
state of society as it is in the States. There is as in the old country, 
a strong class feeling — lines are as completely drawn between thq 
different classes, and aristocracy in the Canadas is the same in its 
manifestations as aristocracy in England, Scotland and elsewhere. 
There is no approach to Southern chivalry, nor the sensitive demc^ 
racy prevalent at the North ; but there is an aristocracy of birth, 
of skin, as with Americans. In the ordinary arrangements of socijj 
from wealthy and titled immigrants and visitors from tl^en^ot 
country, down through the intermediate circles to Yankees an^ 
dians, it appears to have been settled by common consent, till 



'ite> 



,"iV 



36 



NOTES OP CANADA WEST. 



/,j'...- 



ctasfi should not "see any trouble over another ;" but the commoti 
ground on which all honest and respectable men meipt, is that of 
innate hatred of American Slavery. 

RECAPITULATION. 

The conclusion arrived at in respect to Canada, by an]^impartial 
person, is, that no settled country in America offers stronger induce- 
meilts to colored people. The climate is healthy, and they enjoy as 
good health as other settlers, or as the natives ; the soil is of the 
int quality ; the laws of the country give to them, at ^rst, the same 
pTOtecfion and |)rivileges as to other persons not bom subjects ; and 
alter compliance with Acts of Parliament affecting them, as taking 
Oftlli, 6tc»f they may enjoy full *' privileges of British Jbirth in the 
Province." The general tone of society is healthy ; vice is discoun- 
MttAtlCed, and infractions of the law promptly punished ; and, added 
to this, there is an increasing an ti -slavery sentiment, and a pro- 
gTBttsiVe system of religion. _ . U^^^l - -^fi n 



« 



■H. 



THE BRITISH WEST INDIES— MEXICO- 
AMERICA— AFRICA. 



-SOUTH 



htducemonts have been held out by planters to colored men, to 
tettte in the British West Indies, and agents have been sent particu- 
lai^y from JamaiojBi and Trinidad, from time to time, to confer with 
theih on the subject. The most prominent feature in their efforts, has 
beki thto dii^6ct advantage to the planter from such emigration. The 
advaritdgeil to be derived by settlers, in a pecuniary point, from any 
system of emigration originathig with proprietors of estates, will be 
dlbitfufbi, so long as the present mode of planting, managing ^nd in- 
khiilg estates, continues, if the emigrants consent to be mere labor- 
i^tllte^ of owners of the soil. But from a system of voluntary 
itidh to thoio islands, di|[eirent results may be looked for. The 
list miiih6d would but degrade them, the latter materially elevate 
lire vicinity of thdse islands to the southern United States 
^H necessary that they should be peopled by colored men, and 



w 



KOTES OF CANADA WEST. 



37 



under British protection ; in short, that thoy should be British sub* 
ject». The |rolicy of the dominant party in the United States, is to 
dtivefree colored people out of the country, and to send them to Afri- 
ca, only, and at the some time, to give the fullest guaranty to slave- 
holders, for the continuance of their system. To fulfil, to the letter, 
this latter, they make large calculations of a future interest in the 
West Indies, Honduras, and ultimately South America. They wish 
to consecrate to slavery and the slave power that portion of this 
continent ; at the same time they deprecate the vicinity of freemen. 
To preserve those countries from the ravages of slavery, should be 
the motive to their settlement by colored men. Jamaica, with its 
fine climate and rich soil, is the key to the gulf of Mexico. It is 
not distant from the United States, Cuba, nor Hayti ; but, as if pro- 
videntially, is just so positioned that, if properly garrisoned by col- 
ored free men, may, under Britain, promptly and effectually check 
"foreign interference in its own policy, and any mischievous designs 
now in contemplation toward Cuba and Hayti. So of that portion 
of the Isthmus now under the protection of Great Britain. In view 
of the ultimate destiny of the southern portion of North America, 
it is of the first importance that colored men strengthen that and 
similar positions in that region. They are the natural protectors of 
the Isthmus and the contiguous country : it is said by medical miein, 
that those of the human family, physically capable of resisting tk6 
influences of great heat, are also capable of enduring severe cold ; 
and the varied experience of colored persons in America, proves 
that they live to as great age as whiter, whether as whalemen in the 
northern seas, and settlers in the British provinces, (far north of the 
United States,) or in the West Indies. The question of availabiH- 
kty, can never be raised, for at this time there are those who conduct 
with great ability the business of the Islands. Colored men^ 
greatly in the majority, not more than one -sixth are whites, 
are legislators, lawyers, physicians, ministers, planters, editorsj 
chants, and laborers ; and they demonstrate clearly their 
for self-government, and the vartooilr tlBpartments of dvil' 
the great change in their condition since emancipatidA. Tl 



„* 



38 



NOTES OF CANADA WEST. 




of loss from the emancipation act, is a gross misrepresentation, got* 
ten up by interested parties for the benefit of slavery., True there 
may not be so much exported as formerly, for the very good reason 
that there are more purchasers at home. The miserably fed slave 
of former days, is now the independent /ree man, with the ability to 
buy whatever his judgment prompts him to. Neither is the demand 
for laborers for large estates evidence that the peasantry are idle. 
There are more small farmers and cultivators on their own account, 
more store-keepers and traders, and they of the emancipated class. 
More attention is, of course, paid to education, and the children 
are thus relieved, in a measure, from out door duties. Much has 
been done by the colored people of those islands to improve their 
condition, and much more may be done conjointly with emigrants 
from the States, to perfect society, strengthen the British in that 
quarter, and thus keep up "the balance of power." It needs no 
prophet to foretell the establishment of an empire formed out of the 
southern United States and Mexico. Tlie settlement by colored 
pe9ple of those countries, with their ftiany sympathizers, is but a 
preparatory step : that step has been taken, slavery and republican 
rapacity will do the rest. Under what more favor&ble auspices could 
emigration to the West Indies be made than the present, now that 
a general wejlcome would be extended by the people to those who 
would like a milder climate than the States ? What government 
so powerful and so thoroughly impartial, as Her Majesty's ; so prac- 
tically anti-slavery, and so protective? None. The objectipj^ that 
"we wish our own government, to demonstrate our capacity for self- 
government, is done away with at once, for there are colonies con- 
trolled, so far as their immediate affairs extend, by colored men. 
JThe assertion that white men universally degrade colored, is dis^ 
jved by the facts. There is no aristocracy of skin ; every 
^ive to honorable effort is kept before them. It is of the first 
tance, then, that the government of those islands should be anti- 
and that only governments, an ti -slavery in spirit and tenden- 
having a liberal religious policy, should be sought out by 
people from the United Stages. They, of all others on this 



I 



\" 



KOTKS OF CANADA WEST. 



39 



conlineiit,^ave drank plentifully of the cup of degradation, made 
more bitte* from the never ending parade about freedom. They 
Ivould be pOtverful auxiliaries of the present inhabitants, in forming 
a wall of defense, or available for oflfensive operations, as a decided 
protest, for instance, as the best interests and policy of the British 
government might demand. Those who oppose emigration from the 
United States, say, "you (colored people,) will not desire to be the 
laborers in other countries ; to dig the canals, work on rail roads, 
ditch, and the like, but you will prefer tp engage in trade, and 
that others will forestall you." Men who are honest in their desire 
for a change, who love liberty better than slavery, or who are unwil- 
ling to await the tedious, process by which, in •the United States, 
their rights will be given, if ever, will not be fastidious on emigra* 
ting to a country. Emigr?ints to any country, who should aim at a 
monopoly of the. so called respectable occupations, exclusively, 
would be looked upon with distrust, as well as contempt, and the 
result to the emigrant would not be far different from a monopoly of 
menial employments. There will be no scarcity of land, and a me- 
dium, between the extensive operations of capitalists, and the de- 
grading occupations of colored people, generally, in the crowded 
cities of the United States, thus opens to them a certain road to fu- 
ture eminence, in every way preferable to the sudden changes and 
chances of trade, exclusively. 

Allusion is at times made to South America, and plans for a grant of 
territory from governments in that country, in which to form an "in- 
dependent government," have been proposed. Othei6 say, "unite 
with existing governmei^ts." Neither plan can recommend itself to 
prospective emigrants generally. In the first place, there is no pre- 

*^ cedent on record of a grant, similar to the one sought, and the polL 
cy of independent governments, with respect to each other, wt 
always be opposed to unqualified grants. The great objectj] 
uniting with those governments at present, would be their 

* toleration ir. matters of religion ; so long as the iMimate cc 
of the State with the Romish Church exists, those countries* 
but a poor asylum for the oppressed. Tlie liberals, with th( 






• M«V: 



40 



KOT£S OK CANADA WEST. 



H^ 



a minority, struggling for life against the exactions of popery» and 
ihe ambition of military chiefs. Would colored men be piepaied 
to adopt the religion of the country ? That with them would J^lJ^ 
only guaranty of protection, such "protection as vultures give to 
lambs." "Let us seize upon Africa, or some other, unapprepriatedterri- 
while we raay,"say others, "and establish our own governments." But 
Africa has already been seized upon ; the Ei^glish, French, Portuguese, 
Spanish and Turks, have long since shared heroyt among themselves, 
and little Liberia may yet revert to some heir-at-law, who has purposely 
been unmindful of her. There is yet Mexico, to be spoken of here- 
after, and a southern continent, but that belongs to the United States, 
it may be by right of discovery ; so there seems to be no safe alterna- 
tive left but to be satisfied with that government now existing that 
is most reliable and most powerful. That government is Great Brit- 
ain ; her dependencies form a secure home for the American slave, 
and the disgraced free man. The last of her possessions to which I 
shall call attention in this place, is Vancouver's Island. 






MEXICO. 

The vicinity of Mexico to the United States, and the known hos- 
tility of Mexicans to the institution of slavery, weigh strongly with 
0me persons in favor of emigration to that country ; but on careful 
consideration, it will b^^ seen that that country does not present the 
features, in the main, that the States of South America do. The 
hankering of the old Castilians after lost power, is much greater in 
Mexico than farther south ; and to regain that there would not be 
scruples about a coalition with American Slaveholders, even. The 
spirit of democracy has never so thoroughly pervaded that country, 
as those under the shadow of Simon Bolivar. Mexico was called 
^ Spain. In her was remodelled the prominent features of Span- 
)licy in Europe. There was the grand centre point of Spanish 
r, religious intolerance, and regal domination, for the New 
In the Stages, of South America, a change of policy was a 
growing QUj^of the relations of the Church of Roma to 
generally. In M^.^aco, it was an earnest demand of the ma- 



I 



VOTSS OF OAKADA WEST. 



41 



I 



jority to throwijoff the Spanish yoke. This is shown in the relative 
poution of %0 Church in those countries. In Mexico the Roman 
C^l^hpt^ fihuikch. is in undisputed supremacy, and the Pope is to 
them me ultimatum. In the tates of South Amenca, though that 
religion prevails, yet concession has been made, by Rome, in the 
person of a dignitary of equal powers there with the Pope elsewhere. 
With them the Pope is but little more respected than the Greek 
Patriarch. In those States, except Peru, (in which there is but one 
idea generally among Natives and Spanish,) there was no pre- 
viously civilized class, continually brooding over Spanish wrongs : 
the natives came to terms, and threy and Creoles combined to de- 
stroy Spanish tyranny backed by Rome ; consequently, after victory 
over Spain was achieved by them, their remaining enemy was and is 
the Church in its modified form. It yet has, a? before said, suffi- 
cient influence to make those countries undesirable for colored 
people from the Uiiited States in the present phase of things. We 
want a strong positiori ; Mexico does not offer that, even though the 
majority are anti- slavery. The Southern United States have 
" marked her for their prey," which she will be for a time ; and 
combining with the minority, the probability is a contest for the su- 
premacy of slavery for a long time. If it were certain that slavery 
would not be tolerated but for a short period, still the move would 
be inexpedient, as direct contact with revolutionary movements, or 
other plans of progress, in her present state affecting it, would be 
inevitable. The position of colored Americans must be a conserva- 
tive one, for a time, in any foreign country, (from the very nature of 
their relations to foreign nations,) as well as for themselves in the 
United States ; and it were folly 'in them to voluntarily enter the 
breach between any two hostile natioirs until stronger in position ; 
their efforts, to be rational, should be to gain strength. People wJio 
love liberty do not emigrate to weak governments to embroil thei 
selv;^8 in their quarrels with stronger ones, but to strong ones, to 
to thei^ strength and better their own coi^iition, and oreigners fig| 
for others, are, generally, either hirelings, or isolated adveiilu^ 
striving after fame. Whatever people go to Mexico '|nd adof 
6 



"/■ 



-^.y y 



42 



KOTIS or OAKADA WEST. 




instittitioRS, must calculate before hand, to set aside the liftlbits of 
independent civil life — must for a long time repudiate4he plough, 
the arts, and trade, with their concomitants^ in a greatt^ouiltJy, or 
make them but secondary in importance to the, there, paramount 
idea of military life, and the certainty of frequent attacks from abroad 
and at home. The weakness, or rather the internal feuds of Mexico, 
invite attack from unscrupulous parties, is it meet then that emigrants 
of any nation should make haste to " settle there ?" We look in vain 
for the precedent of emigration to a country, distracted even to 
bloodshed, with internal feuds, by any people ; and we may look in 
vain for prosperity. In advocating this, we would leave out of 
sight, the check that a fortifying of the West Indies with our emi- 
grants would give to depredations on the contiguous countries, and 
only gratify the love to fight, without Immediate advantage. Let 
Mexico,at present, take care of herself, by the efforts of her own mixed 
population rightly directed, and let our emigrants bo aholitionize and 
strengthen neighboring positions as to promote the prosperity and 
harmony of the whole. This can be done without compromising away 
honor; in fact, the sentiment " liberty or death," is never realized but 
by 80 proceeding as to secure the first permanently, and only courting 
the latterwhen life is no longer of utility. I know that the recollection 
of innumerable wrongs, makes the de»re for payment in 'like coin 
the necessity of some men's natures, but no real end is jtttained after 
all : the Indians have learned sense from frequent defeat, the con- 
sequence of going to war before they were prepared, and whole 
tribes now cultivate the ar{s of peace and progress. Let us learn 
even of savages ! We can get up a fight at any time, 
but who is the wiser for the sight ? No one, honest men 
would but try to suppress it; so woald a coalition with any nation, 
and especially a weak one, to carry out retaliatory measures, result. 
[^The pro -slavery party of the United States is the aggressive party 

this continent. It is the serpent that aims to swallow all others. 

I meet then to make strongholds, and, if need be, defend them; 
tvill be the most effeetive check to greediness of land and 

roes* k 






MOTES OF OAVADA WIST, 



% 



43 







VAKCrcWtER'S ISLAND—CONCLUDING REMARKS. 

^IslflifiEl is situated between 49 ® and 61 ® nonh latitude, or 
orrmi Winhern boundary of British America; and between 122 ® 
and 12*7 ® west longitude. It is about three hundred miles long, 
and between ninety and one hundred miles broad, and contains 
about twenty-eight thousand square miles. Though remotely situated, 
and comparatively uninhabited, (there being not more than twenty 
thousand persons on it,) it will, it is^ said, be the first island in im-« 
portance on the globe. It has a fine climate, being in the same lat- 
itude as the south of England, Germany, and the north of France: 
the soil is also of the best description. But it is not as an agricul- 
tural island that it will surpass all others. The Western Continent^ 
and particularly the r orthern part, say " wise men of the east;" 
must eventually leave the eastern far in the distance, (a fact that 
should not be lost sight of by colored men,) and that over tho Pacific 
will the trade with eastern nations be prosecuted. Ic is important 
now as a stopping place for whale ships visiting the Northern Seas, 
and is directly in the route to the East Indies, Japan Isles, and 
China, from Oregon and British America. The overland route to 
the Pacific terminating near that point, the great Atlantic tvade of 
Western Europe and America will find there the most practicable 
outlet and the shortest distance to Eastern Asia ; consequently the" 
people there settled, of whatever complexion, will be the "iffirchant 
princes of the world," and under the protection of Great Briiain. 
Now, there are two weighty reasons why the people settled ther^ 
should be colored principally; the first, because by that means they 
would become more fully involved in the destiny of this Cohtineht ; 
any eastern move of magnitude, as for instance to Africa;, if possible, 
would appear a retrograde step, now that the current of affairs is so 
clearly setUng west : and, secondly, in no more eiectual way coiild ' 
a check be given to the encroachmeilts of slavei^ on free, soil.' ^ 'S^^ 
purely American eympeAhy fot ** kith ahd kin- " only,- Would eitii*^-- 
rience unmistakc^i>le' obstacles^ to its free exere^,iti^e event 'c 
contempittted ^exatioh of that deli^^tful Wmmt^mmifi 




-u 









w 




mf-- 



»-■»» 






.^ 



'«^- 




;M- 



N0T18 OF CANADA WIST, 



M ', »■ 



\ 



; ;^ It will be seen, that the possibility of a pretty exteo|^e raajgratioa 

t those countries has been the prominent feature t)iv<^B|^oiit ihls 
ct, and for that reason direct reference has been n]|d^i |i^j|;|i^r 
points, under British jurisdiction, than Canada. The ^ p m^ l ne '**' 
given to these, (Oanada, West Indies, and Vancouver's Island,) over 
British Colonies elsewhere, has been because of their strong position 
and availability in every way. There would not be as in Africa, 
Mexico, or South America, hostile tribes to annoy the settler, or de- 
^stroy at will towns and villages with their inhabitants : the strong 
arm of British pow6r would summarily punish depYedations made, of 
whatever character, and the emigrants would naturally assume the 
responsibility of British freemen. 

The question whether or not an extensive emigration by the free 
colored people of the United States would affect the institution of 
slavery, Ivould then be answered. I have here taken the affirmative 
of that question, because that view of the case seems to me mOst 
clear. The free colored people have steadily discountenanced any 
rational scheme of emigration, in the hope thit by remaining in ^^he 
States, a powerful miracle for the overthrow of 'slavery would be 
wrought. What are the facts. More territory has been given up to 
slavery^ the Fugitive Law has passed, and a concert, of measures, se- 
riously affecting their personal liberty, has been entered into by 
several of the Free states; so subtle, unseen and'effective have been 
their mdftments, that, were it not that we remember there is a Great 
Britain, we would be overwhelmed, powerless, from the force o( 
such successive shocks } and the end may not be yet, if we persist 
in remaining for targets, while they are strengthening themselves in 
the Northwest, and in the Gulf. There would be more of the right 
spirit, and infinitely more of real manliness, in a peaceful but de- 
cided demand for freedom to the slave from the Gulf of Mexico, than 
iu a miserable scainpering Lorn state to state* in a vain endeavor to 
V^l^er the crumbs of fireedom ikeA a pro-slavery besom may Sweep 
'W^lm^ pi my momeKi. May a selection for the best be Made, now 
^^ "^?we,450!mtrid« between whitb and ^0 United States a com- 
n|$f l>« iiptituted. Alit^i i»lding#thehtttd$Y aiid^^^^^^^ 



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